Labor situation in the Federal Republic of Germany.
1. Overall labor situation.
Problems of chronic unemployment is a problem of the Federation. It has more than 10 years, primarily from the economic situation of East Germany. The number of workers have lower labor standards. The number of unemployed over 1 year and the cumulative number of employment for less skilled workers is relatively low unemployment rate, etc. Based on statistics, a chronic problem throughout the country by several years of Federation the unemployment rate. Overall remained high. Is approximately 10.1 per cent and the unemployment rate in eastern Germany side still in the very high unemployment rate statistics, however, the government announced last month in February 2550 with unemployment in the Federation and 4.2 million by the unemployment rate in August. up 10.1 per cent said the rate of unemployment in Eastern Germany with rates as high as 16.9 percent and West has 8.4 percent.
The majority of unemployed in the Federation. A group of women. The low-skilled workers and the elderly as a result of the German labor market that lack the flexibility to distribute the work force and economic situation in the country. For employment, the Federation has a contract system that employers can hire temporary employees have. This leads to women workers. And workers have less life. High risk will not have long-term employment. As well as employees do not accept aging. The system allows the employment of the Federation. System is not transparent. And labor market are clearly distinguishable types of workers also promote the growth of the labor market, government and related agencies. Difference is not as powerful enough to focus on providing benefits to employees who are unemployed than the unemployment rate is higher in East Germany. Allow the government to spend the money to pay workers more. Under the 2010 reform of the labor market (Hartz IV), the Government announced a legal payment plan to help unemployed new value. (Arbeitslosengeld II – ALG), which take effect on January 1, 2548 The law has defined payment plans that aid the unemployed. State aid will pay a rent house. And grant cost of living together. And calculates payments based on economic conditions of the ALG is for income property, and illness of children of the unemployed, etc., which declare the Act. Has resulted in a significant dissent. And causing multiple strikes earlier this month in September 2547.
In addition, the changes of the Federal labor market. Over the years, is working to extend life. Labor without compensation. In mid 2547 the company has news that DaimlerChrysler AG, Thomas Cook AG, the largest travel companies in Europe and Siemens have agreed to extend the union to work longer without increasing wages in the section. Siemens is the agreement to exchange with non-shift production to Hungary with.
Despite that the Federation will have problems of high unemployment the Federal Labor shortages continue to have advanced skills in many parts of. Government has a policy to attract skilled workers and advanced skills in IT to work in the Federation. Under the project “Green Card program” by the year 2547 with workers overseas to work in the IT field more than 17,000 people increased from the year 2545, which has approximately 11,230 employees by the Federal Government. Were allowed to work in the residence permit issued to the Federation has worked in 5 years people have to work in this field often come from India and China. And who have graduated college, especially in applied science.
Statistics from the National Statistical Office of the Federation states that on June 6, 2549 Federal employment has included 36.56 million, representing a rate of 88.84 per cent, while employment in the year 2547 with the Federation Employment and more. 35.65 million by the employment rate in each quarter compared with last year’s 2546 employment rate decreased by an average 1 percent, but statistics in the form of employment. self-employment. The higher rate in 2548 is more than 4 million people.
2. Important labor policy.
2.1 Policies of Labor past.
During the administration of Prime Minister, who before the Schroeder government has issued regulations and policies important to the workers in line with Agenda 2010, including policy.
– To continue as law enforcement The Job-AQTIV Act which take effect when the 2002 list include providing job seekers. And to support job training and find work. To be hired by private companies with a public issue expenses. Supporting the work of agencies / companies to invest in temporary construction. Build infrastructure to encourage people to do the job. Providing subsidies to people who have low income.
– License Green card on May 31, 2543 by IT professionals to take effect on August 1, 2543 licensing such a principle that within 3 years, foreigners are not citizens of the European Union. Can work in Union by the desire for the Green Card must be qualified graduate university degree in IT-related and must be retained by the German company licensed to work in IT will be 5 years old who have. allowed to change and extend the residence time in the Federation. Under the law on residence addition, international students who study in such areas can extend the stay in the federation has to work in IT.
– The Government has negotiated with the union on measures to expand the labor market. Privatization policies and by the last auction are selling wireless telephone licenses of Universal Modem Telecommunications System (UMTS) when the year 2543 and other enterprises, including reducing income tax rates.
– Hartz Act legislation to improve labor market, employment is more diverse. The recruitment center. Plan development and education program “Bridges to self employment” or Ich-AGs, etc. The effect on January 1, 2546.
– The issuance of regulations to those. With income less than 400 euros, excluding taxes and receive social security payments. The employer will pay the tax instead of 25 per cent proportions for those with income above 400 euros to 800 euros, no need to pay full Social Security number. The regulations take effect on April 1, 2546.
– The issuance of regulations and laws. Grants for the unemployed. Protection of disabled employment. And legal professionals about the set that (1) of the unemployed will receive the maximum grants and job just 12 months old more than 55 years to receive the maximum grants 18 months (2) employees will be. protected by law is not to lay when the business. Number of employees over 10 people in the law to the effective date of January 1, 2547 and (3) requires 40 types of professionals (from the original 94 types) must have master’s certificate prior to the company or business location. privacy. By the effective date of July 1, 2547 The government also requires Federal Employment Agency, a unit responsible for providing welfare to the unemployed and long. If the workers do not have any other agencies to assist.
– The Government announced a legal payment plan to help up new jobs. (Arbeitslosengeld II – ALG) under Edit Hartz Act No. 4 called Hartz IV, which take effect on 1 January 2548 the law has made payment plans that aid the unemployed. State aid will pay a rent house. And grant cost of living together. And calculates payments based on economic conditions of the ALG is for income property, and illness of children of the unemployed, etc..
2.2 Law Immigration Law.
Immigration Law, or Law Zuwanderungsgesetz. New amendments. Have effect on 1 January 2548, with material related to labor market as follows.
– The Residence Permit required by law (Aufenhaltsgesetz) that the content does not change. This category is defined as two types of residence permit is limited residence permit (befristete Aufenthaltserlaubnis) and unlimited residence permit.
– Requiring foreigners to invest in the Federation from EUR 1 million or more. The investment and create employment at least 10 positions can be unlimited residence permit and foreign students graduated from universities in the Federation. Available in the Federation. Find a job in the Federation and again 1 year.
– Set to foreigners is high qualified workers to come and work permanently in the Federation if the work supports.
– Foreigners who stay in the federation. Which benefited from money job. Can obtain additional training in German.
– Reduction of restrictions to foreign children go to live with their parents in the Federation. From 12 years of age was defined 16 years Immigration Law The new law may be further opportunities for Thai entrepreneurs to invest in the Federation to increase the opportunities for high qualified workers in IT and Science. And add to the Thai language skills at home in the Federation. The impact on workers in Thailand and Thai people to work and located in the Federation. Especially on the work permit is not much because (1) Thai workers to work legally. Especially. Travel to a Thai cooking. Most employment is in the feature is a unique career. And must be returned within 3 years, which in this case. If Thai workers marry Germans will receive residence permit (befristete Aufenthaltserlaubnis) and can obtain work permit (Arbeitsberechtigung) has (2) women / men who marry Thai Germans will receive residence permit (befristete Aufenthaltserlaubnis) and can obtain work. permit (Arbeitsberechtigung) If the age of marriage than 3 years can apply to residence permit in the form of unbefristete Aufenthaltserlaubnis have. This will not limit the type of work already